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The broad goals for this initiative are to have as many infants as possible receive human milk and to decrease any existing disparities.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the short- and long-term medical and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding make breastfeeding, or the provision of human milk, a public health imperative. The aim of this initiative is to provide the foundation to support a successful human milk feeding experience.


In 2017 with funding from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, WisPQC launched its first human milk feeding initiative. The initiative was designed across the full perinatal care spectrum with measures to track prenatal, hospital stay, and postnatal outcomes. In addition, one measure was included to track human milk feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Between 2017 and 2020, over 20 hospitals providing care to newborns participated at some time.

In 2020, the initiative participants discussed revising the initiative to include a specific focus on human milk feeding disparities. In addition, they decided to remove the NICU-specific measure with longer-term plans to launch an NICU-focused initiative.

Throughout the remainder of 2020 and 2021, WAPC staff met regularly with representatives from Coffective and Wisconsin’s Department of Health Services to shape the revised initiative. The new initiative was launched on October 1, 2022 with its first cohort.



  • Percent of newborns that received any human milk during hospitalization
  • Percent of newborns that received only human milk during the entire hospitalization


  • Percent of newborns with immediate skin-to-skin contact after vaginal delivery
  • Percent of newborns with immediate skin-to-skin contact after Cesarean delivery
  • Percent of newborns rooming-in
  • Percent of lactating persons initiating milk expression with 6 hours for lactating person/newborn separation
  • Percent of newborns discharged with follow-up visit scheduled, including medical provider, WIC, and community-based resources
  • Number of training/educational activities available for staff
  • Number/percent of staff participating in educational activities
  • Patient experience survey


  • Lactation support availability and access
  • Written policies/protocols/procedures
  • Acquisition of infant formula
  • Donor milk program and policies related to qualification and referrals for outpatient access